The militarization of Europe reached its disastrous peak in 1913, one year before the outbreak of World War One, with a global population of just over 1.8 billion people. The presidency of the United States was handed over to Woodrow Wilson. The United States Postal Service, vehicles, the United States Constitution, minimum wage, baseball snacks, and kitchen appliances all made history.
This year saw the deaths of both Harriet Tubman and Alfred Russel Wallace. President Nixon, the country of Albania, President Ford, and football icon Vince Lombardi were all born in 1913.
For the media, it was a different era. The Student of Prague and Fantomas: In the Shadow of the Guillotine were the most popular books in terms of popular culture. Tarzan made his triumphant return to the silver screen in The Return of Tarzan, as well as the inaugural showing of O Pioneers.
While 1913 is most known as the start of World War One, it was much more than that. To begin with, there were numerous legal and constitutional reforms in the United States. The 16th Amendment’s approval allowed for the establishment of the first income tax. Later that year, the 17th amendment was signed into law, requiring senators to be elected directly. Aside from the amendments, Oregon established the first minimum wage law, the US Postal Service delivered the first parcelpost, and Woodrow Wilson signed the Federal Reserve Act. Worldwide protests against unjust governments erupted in various nations, including India, and Gandhi played a prominent role in some of these upheavals.
The United States gained a boost in the arts with the arrival of Picasso, Matisse, and Duchamp at the NY Armory Show. Cracker Jack’s first prize was included into its boxes on February 15th, forever changing baseball snacks. This year saw two notable inventions: Igor Sikorsky’s first four-engine plane and the August 14th invention of stainless steel.
Continue reading to find out more about the events of 1913.
(February 17, 1913)
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(August 13, 1913)