Volcanoes are amazing natural phenomena. They can be found on all seven continents, and they exist in some of the most extreme environments on Earth. Volcanoes are formed when magma from deep within the Earth rises to escape, and then cools into hard rock. Do you know what causes the steam that’s often seen angrily spewing out of a volcano? Why do volcanoes have different shapes? What is a caldera? How much do you know about volcanoes?Take the quiz and find out!
#1. What is the location of the solar system's tallest volcano?
The tallest volcano in the Solar System is actually on Mars. It is called Olympus Mars and rises to an elevation of 27km and measures 550km across.
#2. What is the name of the region that contains an estimated 75% of the world's volcanoes?
#3. The amount of heat below the earth’s crust contains a staggering amount of energy! How much more energy does it contain compared to all the oil and gas reserves in the world?
The amount of heat below the earth’s crust contains 50,000 times more energy than all the oil and gas reserves in the world.
#4. What is the tallest volcano in the world?
Mauna Kea is the tallest mountain from base to peak at more than 33,500 feet [10,210 meters].
#5. What country has the most historically active volcanoes?
Over 75 active volcanoes are within Indonesia’s borders.
#6. Volcanic islands are large volcanoes that have erupted on the seafloor and whose tops have emerged above sea level. How much of the planet’s land do volcanic islands make up?
Volcanic islands make up just 5% of the planet’s land but they are home to nearly 20% of its species.
#7. True or false? All volcanic eruptions feature rivers of lava.
Many volcanoes don’t have dramatic lava flows. Hawaii’s Mount Kilauea is one of the few that does. Volcanic eruptions can also release ash, rock, and gases.
#8. Which animals live in volcanoes?
Trick question! It’s actually all of the above! Underwater volcanoes are very common – in fact up to 80% of volcanoes erupt on the ocean’s floor. Due to their high temperature and acidity, one wouldn’t expect to find life happening around them. However, the high amount of minerals and warmth seem to make a fertile breeding ground for life.
#9. Where does the word “volcano” come from?
Worshipped in ancient Rome, Vulcan was thought to live under an island, called Vulcano, off the coast of Sicily. The word “volcano” comes from this island’s name.
#10. Some wildlife have adapted and evolved to live in volcanic habitats, including the lessor flamingo who are one of the only species to survive at Lake Natron, close to one of Africa’s most active volcanoes. What do flamingos eat that turns them pink?
#11. Which volcano buried the Roman city of Pompeii in A.D. 79?
Mount Vesuvius erupted in August, A.D. 79, after being dormant for almost 2,000 years.
#12. When a volcano erupts, magma is released, which can enrich the surrounding soil. What minerals can be found in magma?
It’s all of the above, plus potassium, sodium and silica! Volcanic dust, ash and rock decompose into soils with an exceptional ability to hold nutrients and water, making them very fertile. This then aids the recovery of an ecosystem after an explosion.
#13. In the past 250 years, which volcano has killed the most people?
In 1815 about 10,000 people were killed by the eruption of Tambora. Famine and disease caused by the eruption killed approximately 80,000 more people.
#14. True or false? Volcanoes only exist on land.
#15. What is the location of the world's most active volcano?
Kilauea in Hawaii is the most active volcano on the planet.
Each question has a time limit of 30 seconds. The quicker you respond, the greater your score. When you’re finished, attempt to beat your previous best score!